Case Studies

A young man of 25 years, had been suffering from anxiety for years when he came. His anger outbursts had gone up, relationships had suffered due to this and wasn’t able to perform in academics either.
Main Concerns : Excessive worry, anxiety, difficulty in controlling these apprehensions, restlessness, fatigue, irritability and sleep disturbance.
Assessments : Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Beck’s Anxiety Inventory,
Diagnosis : Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
Our team of therapists worked with him to provide symptomatic relief at first. Using Behavioral Relaxation Techniques and Mindfulness, he was taught how to release anxiety and feel physically lighter and become completely conscious of his immediate surroundings and aware of his emotions at all times. Using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, restructuring of his negative thoughts were done. A life coach was introduced to be able to explore his goals and works towards achieving them proactively.
Additionally Family Therapy was done to psycho-educate the members of his immediate environment on how to manage stress and have healthier relationships.

A 29 year old man, was brought into therapy by his parents. He had a break up 3 months ago and was totally withdrawn from everything and everyone.
Main Concerns : Depressed mood most of the day, marked diminished interest or pleasure in all activities, sleep disturbance, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness.
Assessment : Beck’s Depression Inventory and Projective tests- Rorschach , TAT and HTP.
Diagnosis : Major Depressive Disorder.
Using NLP , his dysfunctional and irrational thoughts were challenged. Development of personal coping strategies that target problem solving was done. Along with this Dialectical Behavior Therapy was used to teach distress tolerance skills, mindfulness, emotional regulation and how to handle interpersonal relationships. Apart from this Occupational Therapy as an intervention was started to aid him in personal and professional growth post which he was able to build on his intrinsic motivation to achieve his goals.

A 30 years old, Male, Unemployed, came into therapy for some behavioral concerns.
Main Concerns : Repeated anger outburst, exhibiting bizarre behavior such as self-muttering, self-laughing, suspiciousness, refusal to maintain personal hygiene and suicidal ideation.
Assessments: Rorschach Inkblot Test, House Tree Person, Thematic Apperception Test, Draw a Person Test, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale
Diagnosis : Schizophrenia.
Using cognitive behavior therapy, the irrational beliefs of the client were dealt with and anger management was done. Keeping his strengths into focus, his negative thought process was turned towards positive increasing his sense of hope and optimism for the future. Along with this, Dialectical Behavior Therapy was used to teach distress tolerance skills, mindfulness, emotional regulation and how to handle interpersonal relationships. Family Therapy was extensively done to psycho-educate the family about the illness and aid them to integrate the home environment. Life Coaching was introduced where in goals were explored and worked on development of skills to achieve them.

A woman 35 years old, was brought in by her parents for therapy.
Main Concerns : history of unstable interpersonal relationships, intense fear of abandonment, unstable sense of self, impulsivity, feelings of emptiness and inappropriate, intense anger.
Assessments : House Tree Person, Thematic Apperception Test, Draw a Person Test, Family Drawing Test
Diagnosis : Borderline Personality Disorder was stated.
An eclectic approach was taken towards her. Cognitive Behavior Therapy was used for intense and deep rooted anger and hurt. Dialectical Behavior Therapy was used to teach distress tolerance skills, mindfulness, emotional regulation and how to handle interpersonal relationships. An entire lifestyle management was started while maintaining a completely unconditionally positive attitude towards her. Her strong sense of insecurity and strong need for companionship were brought into perspective by developing an insight. The lifestyle management focused on forming a constructive routine in terms of physical activity by regularly going to the gym, yoga or by dance and aerobics. Her extremely dysfunctional bond with her parents was dealt with in joint family therapy and the discord was lessened. Keeping in mind her interests and desires, as a form of occupational therapy an organization was started. Financial management was also done in order to dwell her into understanding the importance of savings. In light of all this, she was able to assume functionality in different aspects of her life.

A 31 year old man, employed came into therapy with extreme anxiety and confusion.
Main Concerns : Difficulty in sleep. forgetfulness, lack of concentration, reduction in appetite, loss of interest in hobbies, withdrawal and isolation from friends, family and wife.
Assessment : Beck’s Depression Inventory
Diagnosis : Major Depressive Disorder
Mindfulness based cognitive therapy was used to challenge his dysfunctional and irrational thoughts that were causing downward spiral into a depressed state. Marital therapy and Family Therapy was done to overcome communication problems and manage conflicts and stress in the relationship.

An 81 year old female, lived in an old age home away from her family. Her sons are settled abroad and her husband passed away 25 years ago.
Main Concerns : Difficulty adjustment in the facility, aggressive tendencies, fluctuations in mood.
Assessments : Cognitive and Dementia Severity Rating Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale
Diagnosis : Moderate Dementia along with Depression.
Cognitive Stimulation Therapy was used to slow down the decline of dementia and maintain social interaction. Expressive Art Therapy along with Dialectical Behaviour Therapy was used for emotional regulation and how to maintain interpersonal relationships.


Persuasion is a vital skill that a person should have in today's working world. In the basic sense, persuasion is the deliberate attempt to influence others without really pushing it. It isn't so much about manipulating people; it is solely about convincing them in a suave manner.

If you are able to master the techniques of persuading someone, it is highly likely that things will be in your favour. It will make you better at negotiating at other and have things done your way. The ultimate aim of persuasion is to convince a person enough that they start believing in the argument that is presented and that they eventually are able to adopt this new argument as a belief.

Mastering the art of persuasion begins with planning. This will enhance your ability to make people believe in you. It is important to set a premise for your spectator.

- A good story People love a good story and are highly influenced by many as well. It is true that people listen to a well presented narrative with more attention compared to a fact floating in the air. A good story is often more influential and convincing than a boring statement.

- Motivation You can't really persuade people without knowing motivational skills. The level of motivation can differ from person to person. Only when a person is motivated enough will they able to listen to you enough to be convinced. Therefore, in order to successfully persuade someone, you need to make sure they have enough motivation.

- Problem Solver People are always venting out to others about their life problems and hope that someone else will find alternatives and solutions to help them out. Hence, for a good persuader it is important to have problem solving skills so people approach them and in turn they can see this as an opportunity to present their persuasive argument.

- Being confident. This is definitely one of the pre-requisites of a master persuader. No one's actually going to heed any attention you if you lack confidence, forget being convinced by your views.

- Being charismatic When people like your body language and how you are with words, they think you have a lot of charisma. This acts as a great social influencer. They are more likely to easily be able to talk to you if they think you have a good personality.

- Creativity People love a creative mind. When people see that you are a creative human being, they are more likely to be attracted to you and listen to what you have to say about certain things. They even respect you more.

With the above skills, you can convince people and see how these techniques come into play in your daily life.

Over the last 10 years, social media has changed the how people interacted with each other. On a average, a person spends approximately 3.4 hours of the day of social platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp etc.

However, social media has a bright side and a dark side. According to research, social media is associated with anxiety and depression. For many people, it is the only way that they will interact with one another. People get a sense of support from these apps or websites and feel connected to the world. For persons with social anxiety, social media is a gift as they can talk about their feelings and emotions without coming having to interact with people face to face.

It does have a downside as well. People on social media tend to compare themselves with others quite often. Even though we have a range of "emojis" as options that may depict our feelings, it may be hard to choose the apt one. Because of this, miscommunication is a is a frequent occurrence on social networks. It often leads to lower quality of social connections.

Past researches have shown that people who post positive messages online are highly likely to have good quality interactions in real life and on the internet. On the contrary, anxiety and depression was prevalent in those who only engaged with negative posts. These signs are also shown in those who interact with former romantic partners online; they are more like to show symptoms like anxiety, apathy, loss of appetite and general discontent which all point to depression.

Here's how social media can be detrimental :

- Likes : People are constantly checking their phones to check how many people have liked their post. In order to get more 'likes' or to portray that they lead a happening life, people often take up deadly social media challenges, alter their looks and basically take up a "fake it till you make it" kind of attitude.

- Cyber-crime : Cyberbullying very common on social media these days. People who are victims of cyber crime often think about suicide and it can lead to severe depression

- Comparing themselves: Over the years, social media has become very content driven. People tend to compare themselves with each other ever so often. They are constantly checking each others profile. People share every little detail about their lives on social media ranging from physical appearances to success to life circumstances.

- Less real-life social interactions : People tend to be so dependent on social media that they forget about actually seeing people in person. Real life interactions are very important to build trust, compassion and empathy in an individual.

Social media also often leads to sleeplessness. One gets sucked it into the world of Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and there's constant life updates from a million people. It gets hard to keep up with. It does give rise to a lot of negative emotions within us and creates a pressure for us to be more online in the day. It makes you restless and you often find yourself lying awake scrolling endlessly on apps on your phone.

However, there are some ways that can help you reduce this sleeplessness.

- Cap your social media usage to only certain hours a day. Keep your phone away at least half an hour before sleeping in order to get better sleep.

- If you're feeling restless in bed at night, don't hurl back to your phone and start using apps aimlessly. This will only further make you more restless. Instead, try mindful meditation techniques that will help you to get sleep.

- If your sleeping patterns are all over the place, it is highly likely that you're experiencing some sort of anxiety. The best way is to try something herbal like a caffeine-free tea. Chamomile tea works wonders in inducing sleep and relaxing you before bed. Other than that, you can also use a few drops of your favourite essential oil (ylang ylang, lavender or jasmine) on your pillow which will promote better sleep.

- Another thing that is beneficial is to fix your sleep routine. Instead of using your gadgets before bed, try to read a book or solve a puzzle like Sudoku so you get to sleep sooner. Light from gadgets is a menace at keeping us awake.

People don't often realise the evils of social media. But it can be both a boon and a bane. It is important for us to keep ourselves in check. Over usage leads to a lot of negative emotions and health issues. It will be great for us if every now and then we are able to take of sometime from the internet and focus on our self and self-care.

The world of entrepreneurship is not an easy one. It comes with a lot of emotional and mental highs and lows. People who are startup founders often find it difficult to deal with at first. These founders are often highly optimistic and often generally what the psychological outcomes of having your own business might be like. It is situations like these that cause one to feel completely broken at times and clueless.

At a startup, the top bosses are often making decisions without having any concrete data. This unorganized decision making often leads to a financial crisis. It is also very hard to maintain family and social relationships in this scenario. As you are constantly working on various aspects of how to run a company (usually without any prior experience), finding work and personal life balance takes a backseat. Health also takes a toll as one works for hours and hours without stopping. Often people say "oh I forgot to eat!", which is not right for one's health.

Anxiety often comes into play in these situations. It affects our decision making processes. For that reason, it is important that we make our crucial decisions absolutely stress free. Depression has similar outcomes to our decision making. It can lead to a rather pessimistic approach from our side on the business front. Being anxious only causes further problems for one's own self. It also affects those around you in a negative manne, as you tend to project your feelings and emotions onto them.

People's high expectations from their selves is the reason why they are so anxious and stressed in the startup setup. As a tech founder, people are putting in constant efforts to promote their business and acquire customers. This leads to a horrible routine and hampers with their health. The sleep cycle is disturbed and food intake is never healthy. It is okay to take a step back and just breathe and look at how you can strategize better with a free mind. De-stressing to perform better is super essential for this.

Here are some helpful techniques to reduce stress for entrepreneurs.

- Prioritize with lists
As an entrepreneur, you constantly have a plethora of thoughts and ideas in your mind. Sometimes it can be very confusing and you would have trouble deciding where to begin. However , if you took 10-15 mins every morning just jotting down points and ideas into a journal, you can work on these things priority basis. Give each little idea the attention it deserves. After all, you worked so hard!
- Alternative outlook
Just a tiny shift in your perspective i.e. your outlook on a certain situation can bring you immense joy and reduce stress. Think about the worst case scenario for a situation and try to accept it. After that, try and think of creative ways to come up with a solution for the problem.
- Celebrate your wins
You are a hard working individual who has a whole company to take care of. Instead of looking at what you have lost, think of your small wins. Celebrating these small successes is what will keep you going.
- De-stress
Take a break every now and then. Meet a friend or hang out with a loved one. It is important to forget about work stress and just enjoy a good time with a close one.
- Exercise
Feeling anxious before an important investor meeting? Take a brisk walk around your nearest park in the morning and take in the bounty of nature with certain positive affirmations in your mind. You'll feel less anxious and more ready to go about your day!

→ HAS HEALTH RAMIFICATIONS (headaches , anxiety )
Physical reaction:
→ Muscular tension
→ Indigestion
→ Rapid uneven or pounding heartbeat.
→ Chest discomfort
→ Fast and shallow breathing
→ Skin rashes
→ Fatigue
→ Backache / headache / neck ache
→ Change in appetite
→ Dizziness , nausea
Behavioral reaction:
• Sleep isn't right
• Not attending classes
• Procrastination
• Increased use of alcohol / caffeine
• Short spans of concentration
• Easily distracted
• Withdrawal
Psychological reaction
• Feeling under pressure – frustration and aggression
• Feeling tensed and unable to relax
• Feeling mentally drained out
• Fussy, gloomy or suspicious being constantly frightened or irritable
• Inability to concentrate or complete the task.
• Help students draw a realistic revision schedule
• Include some time for relaxation
• Plan breaks for 5 minutes : this prevents one from losing interest
Revising methodically:
Regular test:


→ Encourage students to recite loudly
→ Make them describe what you've taught in their own words
→ Ask them to teach or explain the same thing to someone else
→ Engage in a simulation or role play a part
→ When studying encourage the students to WRITE .
→ Make a Chapter Study Review Card
→ Make and use a set of flash cards
→ Make lists of related information by categories
→ When studying encourage students to VISUALIZE.
→ With eyes closed ask them to picture in their mind any chart, diagram, word, map, event, time period, scene (from a story) that's been done in class.
→ When studying encourage students to VISUALIZE.
→ With eyes closed ask them to picture in their mind any chart, diagram, word, map, event, time period, scene (from a story) that's been done in class.

Psychological • Feeling under pressure – frustration and aggression
• Feeling tense and unable to relax
• Feeling mentally drained out
• Fussy, gloomy or suspicious being constantly frightened or irritable
• Inability to concentrate or complete the task.
• Sleep difficulties
• Not attending classes
• Procrastination
• Increased use of alcohol
• Increased caffeine use
Physical reaction:
• Muscle tension
• Indigestion
• Rapid uneven or pounding heartbeat.
• Frequent urge to pass urine.
• Fast and ,shallow breathing.
• Chest discomfort
• Fatigue
• Backache
• Change in appetite

Anxiety reduction:

• Learn in advance to relax
• Try using humor to beat negative thoughts
• Do your best to be well prepared
• However anxious avoid working too close to the exam
• Eat something
• Make sure you know where and when the exam is
• Have everything ready to take with you .
• Make yourself comfortable
• Your task is to do best you can now
• Take your time to read through all the questions and instructions carefully
• Pick out the questions that relate well to your revisions
• Plan your answers
• Do your best to ignore everyone else while planning
• Answer the easy ones first in order to boost your confidence.
• Manage your time
• Look at your self
• Avoid perfectionism
• If your panic gets worse ; put down your pen and relax.
• If you feel unwell , ask the invigilator if you may leave the room for a short while.

Eating healthy:
• Breakfast provides the energy needed through an active morning.
• Children who skip breakfast may have trouble concentrating at school.
• Keep hot food hot and cold food cold.
• Avoid fast food
Godd exercise:
• Excercise
• Physical fitness
• Sport
Good Health:
• Sleep problems have emotional basis
• Sleep disturbance is due to stress , anxiety of exams
• Good sleep is required for whole body and mind relaxation
Relaxation Therapy:
• It enables you to remain focused.
• Relaxes your physical and mental body

The procedure to do it is :-
• 1/2 an hour for 3 weeks - daily
• As you require.
• Repeat after 6 months
Stages for relaxation:
• Countdown method.
• Progressive method.
• Getting out of relaxation state.
• Helps increasing oxygen level in the body, thus feeling more fresh and relaxed.
• Helps building up of new fresh and healthy tissues and cells in the body.
• Helps increasing your concentration power
Points to ponder:
• Get the support of your family and friends.
• Be cool and keep to the healthy lifestyle.
• Avoid any substances that promise limitless energy! There is usually a downside, and revision time is not a good time for experiments
• Plan one day a week to be completely free of revision.
• Keep up with some of your other activities.
• Taking proper breaks.

Exam Stress : Problem and Solution

Introduction: Each one of us has loved to hate studies, and still managed to get through. We have always envied the so called "scholars" of our class, who could score twice the marks with half the study.

But as is true with every game, there are certain rules to study well without getting stressed. Certain methods, ways and techniques to study better and also practice relaxation. When one plays the game of study with these rules, it becomes beautifully simplified and extremely easy. And that's what you, as a mother, need to teach your child.

There are many challenging situations that one comes across and to tackle them effectively can be quite daunting but nevertheless, we will try to bring solutions to challenging situations that are mostly experienced by mothers and children

Problem 1: The child is either sleeping too less or too much, or eating too less or too much.
Reason: the child's sleep and appetite may have been disturbed due to high stress levels.
Solution: DO NOT FORCE HIM TO SLEEP 'N' EAT …HE TOO WANTS TO Try to understand what is causing the stress, talk about his fears and apprehensions . Make him feel understood. Provide adequate support to him. Try to establish consistent sleep and meal times. The child should be encouraged to indulge in some physical activities and relaxation exercises like deep breathing or recreational activities.
Problem2: The child usually spend hours cramming the night before and complain that he is not able to complete his syllabus.
Reason: Here, the child maybe suffering from high anxiety and also, mental block due to inefficient ways of studying pattern.
Solution: Here, memory enhancement in the form of PQ4R is recommended. A study conducted by Swashrit society on 5000 students from public schools in Delhi and NCR have shown a definite improvement in recall abilties..
The PQ4R method is to P:Preview (the summary) the chapter,Q: question (what you have learned?),R:re- read, R:reflect,R: recite, R:review .Mnemonics may be used. Mnemonics are the triggers of memories.. These include use of the below to remember better:
smells tastes
touch positions
Problem 3: Complains of not being able to concentrate on studies.

Reason: Here, the child maybe suffering from high anxiety, stress and mental fatigue which may prevent him from focussing on his studies.

Solution: Help your child to practice deep breathing exercises\ meditations twice a day for 10-15 mints. Auto suggestion is also an effective exercise which instils positive thoughts and mental frame of mind. This is done by repeating to one self positive and encouraging statements. This is a relaxation self-therapy which should help the child attain a mental relaxation free from worries and stress. Here, it is important that your child gets enough breaks in between his studies to prevent him/her from having a mental saturation or fatigue.

Some tips:
• Set aside a place for study and for study only!
• Choose a specific place
• Always study at that specific place
• Study area should be conducive to studying
• Avoid certain things in the study area like tele. , t.v. etc.
Problem 4: Your child has become very moody and irritable.
Reason: This may be due to hormonal changes during puberty ,or an inability to deal or cope with the pressure of studies and the hassles of growing up. It is also a period of high insecurity with regards to his capacity and goal.
Solution: As a parent ,try to be more tolerant of his mood swings .Also make your child understand these mood swings may be due to physiological changes in the body Don't be too quick in your reaction (negative reaction eg. anger out-burts) towards his hostility due to his mood swing.Teach him appropriate ways of managing his emotions like open communication , sharing his state of mind with peers 'n' parents , appropriate anger management techniques etc.
Problem 5: Your child seems to be putting in all his efforts and yet not being able to perform well.
Reason: Too much of performance anxiety is overstraining his mental capacity.
• Help your child stay active! Maintaining a good balance between intellectual and physical activity is a good way of dealing with stressful situation. Staying active will allows the body to find its normal level of tension. Swashrit Society , a NGO started Get Active, a lifestyle enhancement program in the schools across India and after working with over a 100schools found physical exercise as one of the best ways to improve performance (Reasearch : 2005 , N= 1,00,000 students )
• Eat well! Do not try to perform on an empty stomach and avoid junk food. Fresh fruits and vegetables are recommended to reduce the stress level.
• Breaks in between his studying are essential to motivate and enhance his productivite the child.
Problem 6: Your child makes excuses for avoiding school.
Reason: Your child maybe avoiding the situation as this may cause him to feel too anxious or tensed.
Solution: Try to understand his reasons for acting the way he/she is acting. Then try to address his anxiety and fears.They may be personal or academic reasons or both. Help him to express and share his worries through life or self example and also talk to his teachers and peer about his problem and find solution through their help.
Problem 7: Your child often complains off getting lost in the details of reading and have trouble identifying the main ideas!
Reason:High level of distractability and monotony is the prime reason.
• Here it is important for the parent to explain to the child the Essentials of READING that include
• Recitation: saying out loud and running a finger along the lines , while one is reading and memorizing, (you may initiate sitting with him while he reads to encourage him and occasionally read out to him also )
• Writing: taking notes as they go through the notes ,
• Visualization at the end of reading such that he remembers the location of what he read
• Questioning your child to reinforce his reading and recall:
Problem 8: your child seems to be thorough with his/her preparation and yet fails to perform in the exams.
Reason: Exam anxiety is at its highest.
Solution: Help your child to practice the following cues so as to boost his performance.
Help your child to learn deep breathing in neutral situations such that he starts his exam by deep breathing and normalises his anxiety… Encourage him to strategise by the foll. rules :
• Make yourself comfortable ,Your task is to do best you can now
• Take your time to read through all the questions and instructions carefully
• Pick out the questions that relate well to your revisions
• Plan your answers Do your best to ignore everyone else while planning
• Manage your time, estimate the time needed to answer each questions or each sections of your exam.
• Answer questions in a strategic order by answering the easiest questions before going on to the difficult ones. This will have an effect of building the level of confidence.
• To answer essay type questions, prepare a broad outline of the important ideas and the order in which one wants to present them before writing the answers.
• If your panic gets worse ; put down your pen and relax \deep breathe.
• If you feel unwell , ask the invigilator if you may leave the room for a short while.
Problem 9: Your child is having problem with time management with regards to his study.
Solution: Prioritize the work \ studies according to the table below:

Urgent and important
Urgent but not important
Not urgent but important
Neither urgent nor important

It is the aim of this time management grid to help us maintain an optimal level stress by helping us to prioritize the studies \work . A daily record is to be made for effective productivity. Encourage making daily ,short term and long term goals with adequate reinforcements at the comp[letion of these goals
Problem 10: Your child, sometimes, suffer from dizziness, fatigue, nausea, fast and shallow breathing…
Reason: this maybe due to the child's habit of being cooped up in his room for too long with out having time relax.
Solution: Here, it is important to explain to your child the importance of physical exercise, going for walks in the morning or evening, as this helps to refresh the mind
With the increase in suicides and depression among students , the crippling effect of academic stress is now making waves in the life of students. While bags are getting heavier and the syllabi slightly tougher the maximum amount of pressure is felt right before exams or at the time of approaching of exam results. This results in major lifestyle changes such as smoking , disturbed sleep , taking medication and increased intake of caffeine.
Hence it is time that we sit down with our children and tell him that it's not really as tough as it seems. Enjoying academics is not unattainable , it's just a bit challenging. We easily say life is a game so in that case why should studies be any different , it is a game too and just like every other game there are certain rules to study. There are certain ways and techniques to study better. Only when one plays the game of studies according to the rules and techniques does studying become beautifully simplified and extremely easy and to our astonishment we find ourselves being one the the 'envied scholars'.Not every one of us is a born book worm or one who enjoys studying but it is something that can be inculcated in a child if the right approach is taught to him or simply the right technique.. Learning should be made fun and we're going to elucidate some ways of how exactly that can be done.

Dr. BHAVNA BARMI ,Sr. Clinical and Child Psychologist
FOR ANY QUERIES FEEL FREE TO CALL OUR helpline at 9818330993\ swashrit

Postpartum depression (PPD) is a type of depression that affects some women after giving birth to an infant.

Postpartum depression is a serious, but treatable medical illness involving feelings of extreme sadness, indifference and/or anxiety, as well as changes in energy, sleep, and appetite. It carries risks for the mother and child.For most women, having a baby is a very exciting, joyous, and often anxious time. But for women with postpartum, or peripartum, depression it can become very distressing and difficult.

Pregnancy and the period after delivery can be a particularly vulnerable time for women. Mothers often experience immense biological, emotional, financial, and social changes during this time. Some women can be at an increased risk for developing mental health problems, particularly depression and anxiety.Typically, the condition develops within 4 to 6 weeks after giving birth, but it can sometimes take several months to appear.

This type of depression does not only affect mothers. One study found that around 10 percent of new fathers experience postpartum or prenatal depression. The highest rates can be found 3 to 6 months after childbirth.

Postpartum depression can affect parents in several different ways. Below are some common signs and symptoms:
• a sensation of being rejected
• frequent irritability
• headaches, stomach aches, blurred vision
• loss of libido
• panic attacks
• persistent fatigue
• reduced motivation
• sleeping problems

Many people with PPD do not tell people how they feel. Some people with postpartum depression may have had thoughts about harming their child. They may also think about committing suicide or self-harming. Neither parents nor the infant are harmed in most cases, but having these thoughts can be frightening and distressing.PPD is likely to be the result of multiple factors. However, its exact causes are still not known.

Depression is usually caused by emotional, stressful events, a biological change triggering an imbalance of brain chemicals, or both.

The following factors may contribute to PPD:
• a complicated or difficult labor and childbirth
• lack of family support
• worries about relationships
• hormonal changes, due to a sudden and severe drop in estrogen and progesterone levels following birth
• changes to the sleep cycle

The most important step on the road to treating and recovering from PPD is to acknowledge the problem. Family, partners, and the support of close friends can have a major impact on a faster recovery. It is better for the person with PPD to express how she feels to people she can trust, rather than repressing emotions. There is a risk of partners or other loved ones feeling shut out, which can lead to relationship difficulties that add to the PPD.

Self-help groups are beneficial. Not only do they provide access to useful guidance, but also access to other parents with similar problems, concerns, and symptoms. This may reduce the feeling of isolation.

Studies have found that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be successful in moderate cases of PPD. Cognitive therapy is effective . This type of therapy is based on the principle that the thoughts can trigger depression. The individual is taught how to better manage the relationship between her thoughts and state of mind. The aim is to alter the thought patterns so that they become more positive. To help yourself get better, make sure you eat well, get some exercise every day, and get as much sleep as possible. Get support from family and friends if you can.

Try not to feel bad about yourself for having this illness. It doesn't mean you're a bad mother. Many women have postpartum depression. It may take time, but you can get better with treatment.

The recent flare-up of smartphones has provided people with the ability to use the Internet at any given moment. Everybody owns a smartphone and for some this may not be problematic but some people develop an addiction.

The functionalities of the smartphone are constantly being improved, which has amplified the chances of overuse and addiction. It's true that the improvement of technology has led to several conveniences; it has also brought other problems. It has impacted people's lives to a great extent.

Smart phone addiction can be called as a dependence syndrome. This term was used by World Health Organisation in the year of 1964. It is considered as substance abuse or an addiction that is behavioural. Smartphones are easily accessible to children these days. Teenagers are also getting addicted to their phones. Smartphones have now become a symbol of social status. Individuals who use a specific brand or the new models feel proud and 'up-to-date'. This initiates the pressure to buy the latest phones and to install all the latest applications.

Smartphone addiction can encompass a variety of impulse-control problems, including:
1. Virtual relationships. Addiction to social networking, dating apps, texting, and messaging can extend to the point where virtual, online friends become more important than real-life relationships. We've all seen the couples sitting together in a restaurant ignoring each other and engaging with their smartphones instead. While the Internet can be a great place to meet new people, reconnect with old friends, or even start romantic relationships, online relationships are not a healthy substitute for real-life interactions. Online friendships can be appealing as they tend to exist in a bubble, not subject to the same demands or stresses as messy, real-world relationships. Compulsive use of dating apps can change your focus to short-term hookups instead of developing long-term relationships.
2. Information overload. Compulsive web surfing, watching videos, playing games, or checking news feeds can lead to lower productivity at work or school and isolate you for hours at a time. Compulsive use of the Internet and smartphone apps can cause you to neglect other aspects of your life, from real-world relationships to hobbies and social pursuits.
3. Cybersex addiction. Compulsive use of Internet pornography, sexting, nude-swapping, or adult messaging services can impact negatively on your real-life intimate relationships and overall emotional health. While online pornography and cybersex addictions are types of sexual addiction, the Internet makes it more accessible, relatively anonymous, and very convenient. It's easy to spend hours engaging in fantasies impossible in real life. Excessive use of dating apps that facilitate casual sex can make it more difficult to develop long-term intimate relationships or damage an existing relationship.
4. Online compulsions such as gaming, gambling, stock trading, online shopping, or bidding on auction sites like eBay can often lead to financial and job-related problems. While gambling addiction has been a well-documented problem for years, the availability of Internet gambling has made gambling far more accessible. Compulsive stock trading or online shopping can be just as financially and socially damaging. eBay addicts may wake up at strange hours in order to be online for the last remaining minutes of an auction. You may purchase things you don't need and can't afford just to experience the excitement of placing the winning bid.

Causes Of Smartphone Addiction In Males And Females

While one can experiences impulse-control problems with a laptop or desktop computer, the size and convenience of smartphones and tablets means that it can be taken just about anywhere to gratify compulsions at any time. In fact, most people are rarely ever more than five feet from our smartphones. Like the use of drugs and alcohol, they can trigger the release of the brain chemical dopamine and alter your mood. One can also rapidly build up tolerance so that it takes more and more time in front of these screens to derive the same pleasurable reward.

After reviewing all the researches that investigated the causes of phone addiction in males and females, it is seen that there are a variety of causes for this addiction. It has been seen that prevalence of depression in males and females can also lead to smartphone addiction. The higher the perception of parental controls by the child/teen, greater the chances of cell phone addiction. Using smartphone for functions such as social media, gaming, online messaging and video watching was assigned to be positively related with smartphone addiction. Young adults that are going through extreme stress and low mood may not have positive stress coping mechanisms and techniques to manage mood and are thus highly susceptible to smartphone addiction.

Problems That Occur During Smartphone Addiction

1. Increases loneliness and depression: A 2014 study found a correlation between high social media usage and depression and anxiety. Users, especially teens, tend to compare themselves unfavorably with their peers on social media, promoting feelings of loneliness and depression.
2. Fuels anxiety. One researcher found that the mere presence of a phone in a work place tends to make people more anxious and perform poorly on given tasks. The heavier a person's phone use, the greater the anxiety they experienced.
3. Increases stress. Using a smartphone for work often means work bleeds into your home and personal life. You feel the pressure to always be on, never out of touch from work. This need to continually check and respond to email can contribute to higher stress levels or even burnout.
4. Exacerbates attention deficit disorders. The constant stream of messages and information from a smartphone can overwhelm the brain and make it impossible to focus attention on any one thing for more than a few minutes without feeling compelled to move on to something else.
5. Diminishes ability to concentrate and think deeply or creatively. The persistent buzz, ping or beep of your smartphone can distract you from important tasks, slow your work, and interrupt those quiet moments that are so crucial to creativity and problem solving. Instead of ever being alone with our thoughts, we're now always online and connected.
6. Disturbes sleep. Excessive smartphone use can disrupt your sleep, which can have a serious impact on your overall mental health. It can impact your memory, affect your ability to think clearly, and reduce your cognitive and learning skills.
7. Encourages self-absorption. A UK study found that people who spend a lot of time on social media are more likely to display negative personality traits such as narcissism. Snapping endless selfies, posting all your thoughts or details about your life can create an unhealthy self-centeredness, distancing you from real-life relationships and making it harder to cope with stress.

Treatment for smartphone and Internet addiction

• There are specialist treatment centers that offer digital detox programs to help disconnect from digital media.
• Individual and group therapy can also give a tremendous boost in controlling technology use.
• Cognitive-behavioral therapy provides step-by-step ways to stop compulsive behaviors and change perceptions about smartphone and the Internet. Therapy can also help one learn healthier ways of coping with uncomfortable emotions—such as stress, anxiety, or depression—that may be fueling the smartphone use.
Marriage or couples counseling. If excessive use of Internet pornography or online affairs is affecting your relationship, counseling can help one work through these challenging issues and reconnect with their partners.
Group support. Organizations such as Internet Tech Addiction Anonymous (ITAA) and On-Line Gamers Anonymous offer online support and face-to-face meetings to curb excessive technology use.

How many times have you binge watched your favorite series all at once? Is it excruciatingly difficult to not click the next episode when it is so easily available? How long did it take to complete the whole season 1 of Sacred Games?

For majority of people the answer to these questions is troubling. Netflix has something for everyone and for every mood. Unlike traditional TV series with one episode each day or week, streaming platforms like Netflix have whole series or seasons readily available. It is hard to stop yourself especially when the last episode ended with a cliff hanger- what is going to happen next? What harm could watching just one more episode would really do? Cliff hangers produce acute stress. In situation of acute stress the body produces an excess of CRH, a hormone that mediates the release of other stress hormones in the body. This leads to bodily arousal, which in turn causes the body to remain alert. So, when you're faced with that cliffhanger, you're suddenly not so tired and you find yourself watching another episode. Such binge watching for its duration does make you happy. It helps you escape the reality and provides immediate gratification. Although in the end you are left with incomplete work or tasks and all your time is lost, which then causes stress. To escape that stress you go back to Netflix. It is a vicious cycle and it is becoming more and easier to get trapped in it.

Since 1996, Internet Addiction Disorder has been studied and considered for inclusion into the clinical setting as a documentable disorder. And, while this represents an extreme that won't affect most Netflix users, it is a reality when you're talking about binge-watching TV for hours on end and as Netflix CEO Reed Hastings admits he wants to keep you watching. In an earnings call last year, Hastings said, "You know, think about it, when you watch a show from Netflix and you get addicted to it, you stay up late at night. You really – we're competing with sleep, on the margin."

According to a report by Limelight Networks, Indians spend 8 hours 29 minutes watching online video content, which is far more than the global trend of six hours and 45 minutes. Things seem to have hit an extreme however, as The Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) in Bengaluru recently admitted the first person suffering from Netflix addiction in the country. The patient was an unemployed 26-year-old male who checked into the NIMHANS after using Netflix to escape the reality of his unemployment for six months, according to the The Hindu.

Manoj Kumar Sharma, a clinical psychologist at the institute's Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT), told The Hindu that the man turned to Netflix to escape pressures from family to find a job, forgetting his problems and deriving "immense pleasure from it."Netflix addiction" isn't in the DSM-5 and controversy surrounds the ideas of similar screen-related addictions. Working on the patient's self control Dr. Sharma said, "We didn't recommend him not to watch anything because at this moment he didn't have anything constructive to do. We brought lifestyle changes which can bring some significant amount of distraction in him." Activities like meditation and alternative hobbies, such as sports or nature walks, are encouraged, Sharma and Sen said. Addiction with streaming services can be seen in the same light as obsession with gaming, which was qualified as a disorder by the World Health Organization in June, a decision met with skepticism by some mental health experts. Addiction experts say one of the major reasons people opt to endlessly watch online shows is to cut themselves off from reality. They want to find themselves in a virtual space where they do not need to resolve a "real crisis", they added.

According to The Print, Dr Manoj Kumar Sharma of the SHUT Clinic said he had seen a marked increase in the number of addiction cases pertaining to the abuse of social media, gaming and video-on-demand. "Earlier, I used to get two to three cases of gaming or mobile phone addiction in a week," he told The Print. "Now, out of the 10 cases referred to me, eight turn out to be extreme ones. While addiction among the younger generation, aged between eight and 14 years, continues to be centered on gaming, apps such as Netflix are more for the adults, who find emotional gratification (in the streaming services) as they are under constant stress" Dr Sharma added.

Caution should be applied in self-diagnosis. Although it is better to take certain precautions before such binge watching becomes problematic (a coping mechanism). If you feel that streaming apps or video games are causing disturbance in your life, it is time to take some steps- you can either go cold turkey or progressively reduce the time spent and effectively manage the time. Either way it needs self control and strong will as creators of these apps, series or games are leaving no stone unturned in making them more and more appealing or addictive.

Dr Sharma listed three major parameters that should raise a red flag: If the person is pre-occupied with Netflix (or online video streaming apps) or games all day, begins to lose control and is unable to stop despite spending 10 to 12 hours on it, and neglects his/her environment. If you notice these three things in a friend or relative, it is time to seek help.

We Often Eat Things That We Like In A Large Amount Even Though We Are Aware About The Fact That We Are Full Or We Find Ourselves Eating Secretly In The Night The Things That We Had Previously decided Not To Have . It's Okay To Cheat On Your Diet Once In A While In This Manner But It Can Be Dangerous If The Pattern Is Repeating Itself , It Could Be A Warning Sign Of A Eating Disorder. In This Article We Will Be Discussing Specifically Binge Eating Disorder (BED) , In This Disorder A Person Feels Compelled To Eat And Engages In Eating Binges In Which They Find Their selves Losing Control Over Their Eating Pattern . Eating What You Like Is Not Wrong But Most People With BED Feels Stressed About Their Body, Appearance, Weight Etc. They Are Highly Concerned About Their Physical Appearance And Already Has A Set Body Image In Their Mind That They Want To Achieve And Anything Less Than That Is Quite Dissatisfying And Distressing For Them. BED Can Also Be Characterized By Sudden Urge To Eat Your Favorite Or Desired Food Which May Reduce Your Stress Temporarily Especially When You Are Consuming It But After Some Time Reality Strikes You And Stress Comes Over With Double Amount ; People With BED Feels Guilty And Stressed But They Do Not Take Any Kind Of Inappropriate Action Such As Vomiting, Starving Etc . According To APA (American psychological association) BED Can Be Characterized By Symptoms Like :
• Recurrent Binge Eating Episodes,
• Bed Includes At least Three Of These Features:
→ Unusually Fast Eating
→ Absence Of Hunger
→ Uncomfortable Fullness
→ Secret Eating Due To Sense Of Shame}
→ Subsequent Feeling Of Self-Disgust
→ Depression
→ Severe Guilt
• Significant Distress,
• Binge Eating Episodes Takes Place At least Weekly Over The Course of Three Months ,
• Absence Of Excessive Compensatory Behaviors.

People With BED Are Often Normal Or A Little Overweight But Due To Recurrent Binge Eating Episodes They Eventually Become Overweight And Obese; There Is Not A Very Large Gender Difference In Prevalence Rate Of BED. However It Has Been Seen That In Most Asian Society Most People With BED Are Females. The Causes Of BED Are Different According To Each Different Perspective; Acc. Bruch's Psychodynamic Theory Of Ego Deficiency The Type Of Parents One Has Or Relationship Between The Mother & Child Becomes An Important Determent In Deciding The Chances Of a person To Get Any Eating Disorder, For e.g. Effective Parents Looks After The Needs Of Their Young Ones In A Proper Manner While On The Other Hand The Ineffective Parents Fail To Take Care Of Their Young Ones In Appropriate Manner. Some Of The Biological Factor Is Serotonin A Type Of Neurotransmitter In Our Body It Has Been Noted That People With Eating Disorder Have Low Activity Of Serotonin And The Other important Part Is Hypothalamus Which Is Responsible Regulation Of Hunger When Activated . The Type Of Values , Ideals And Living Patterns And Standard Etc of the Family in which A Person lives in, Helps In Shaping That Person Views And Personality For e.g. If A Family Lays More Emphasis On Physical Appearance Or Academic Achievement The Child Is Most Likely Prioritize That Particular Aspect In His/her Life. Every Individual Is Part Of The Society After All Man Is A Social Animal; The Society Plays An Important Part In Determining What Is Healthy And Unhealthy But The Irony Is That The Society Is Portraying Thinness And Starvation As An Measure Of Attractiveness , Character , Intelligence Etc. Hence, People Are Somehow Getting Motivated To Move Into Direction Of So Called "Desirability". In Many Cases The People With BED Are Suffering Because Of The Set Body Goal That The Media Has Introduced To Them; They Are Forced To Fit Into That Mould Indirectly And Unconsciously. The People With BED Have Distorted Sense Of Perception Regarding Their Own Internal Sensation And Needs; When People Fail To Recognize This Fact , They Overeat .The People With BED Or Any Other Kind Of Eating Disorder Do Not Seek Treatment On Their Own And are Often Forced By Friends Or Family To Seek Treatment As Do Not See Anything Wrong With Their Eating Pattern Or Behavior. The Treatment For Binge Eating Is Available In Many Different Form Of Therapy Such As Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Or Any Different Forms Of Psychotherapy; Antidepressants Are Also Prescribed In Order To Reduce The Binge Eating Pattern But One Needs To Understand That One Should Actually Possess The Desire To Change Their selves Because The Therapies And Medications May Reduce The Symptoms But It Cannot Completely Cure The BED And That There Are High Chances Of Relapse So, One Of The Most Important Requirement In Treatment Is Patience And Self- Control.

Over-expensive healthcare plans providing no service at all? Reduced efficiency? Worry over the healthy future of your family? Look no further..

Managed care a method of health care delivery that focuses on collaboration among and coordination of all services to avoid overlap, duplication, and delays and to reduce costs. There is an emphasis on efficacy and timeliness of interventions to prevent unnecessary delays in discharge from the hospital or agency. Managed care plans typically cover a wide range of health services such as preventive care and immunizations for adults and children, general checkups, diagnosis and treatment of illness (including necessary tests, doctors' visits, prescription medications, and hospital care), and complete prenatal (pregnancy) and newborn care. Additionally, most managed care plans offer some services for the diagnosis and treatment of mental health conditions and substance abuse problems.

Health insurers in India currently face many challenges, including poor consumer awareness, strict regulations, and inefficient business practices. They operate under a combination of stifling administrative costs and high medical expense ratios which have ensured that insurers operate under steep losses. External factors (eg, onerous regulations, lack of standards, high claims payouts) and internal factors (eg, high administrative costs, dependence on indemnity models that cover inpatient treatment costs only) have forced the health insurance industry into a regressive spiral. To overcome these challenges, health insurers need to innovate in their product offerings and tighten their existing processes and cost structures. But as a long-term strategy, it is imperative that health insurers deploy managed care concepts, which will go a long way toward addressing the systemic issues in the current operational models of health plans.

Faced with this state of affairs we want to explore if it is at all conceivable for developing countries like India to offer a comprehensive high quality healthcare solution to all her citizens. It is my view that, given the unique nature of healthcare, a pure laissez faire, demand driven approach will not produce first-best outcomes for India and nor do existing "solutions" have the potential to do so. Managed Care with its emphasis on offering a structured set of solutions with strong gate-keeping functions, in my view, represents the ideal model both from a cost control and healthcare point of view, irrespective of whether it is operated by the Government or the private sector. One could have a long debate on the pros and cons of Managed Care but even assuming for the moment that we all agree that this indeed is the direction that a developing country like India must go, all the practical challenges that have dogged Indian efforts at providing healthcare do not magically vanish merely because a new model of healthcare has been proposed.

There are three forms of procrastination :

Approximately 20 percent of people are chronic procrastinators; for them the behavior cuts across all domains of life. There's more than one flavor of procrastination. Arousal types, or thrill-seekers, wait until the last minute in order to reap a euphoric rush. A second type, avoiders, put off tasks because of fear of failure or even fear of success, but in either case are very concerned with what others think of them. Then there are decisional procrastinators, who are unable to make a decision; not making a decision absolves them of responsibility for the outcome of events. There are big costs to procrastination: It is internally troubling, leading to such problems as insomnia, immune system and gastrointestinal disturbances, and it erodes personal relationships and teamwork in the workplace. Procrastination is something that most people have at least a little experience with. No matter how well-organized and committed you are, chances are that you have found yourself frittering away hours on trivial pursuits (watching TV, updating your Facebook status, shopping online) when you should have been spending that time on work or school-related projects.

We all procrastinate at some time or another, and researchers suggest that the problem can be particularly pronounced among students. An estimated 25 to 75 percent of college students procrastinate on academic work. One 2007 study found that a whopping 80 to 95 percent of college students procrastinated on a regular basis, particularly when it came to completing assignments and coursework.

In most cases, procrastination is not a sign of a serious problem. It's a common tendency that we all give in to at some point or another. It is only in cases where procrastination becomes so chronic that it begins to have a serious impact on a person's daily life that it becomes a more serious issue. In such instances, it's not just a matter of having poor time management skills; it's an indication of what Ferrari refers to as a maladaptive lifestyle. "Non-procrastinators" focus on the task that needs to be done. They have a stronger personal identity and are less concerned about what psychologists call 'social esteem'—how others like us.

According to psychologist Piers Steel, people who don't procrastinate tend to be high in the personality trait known as conscientiousness. People who are high in conscientiousness also tend to be high in other areas including self-discipline, persistence, and personal responsibility.

Basically procrastination is not serious problem because ever it is a common tendency but i can become a problem if it comes in ur habit. We use to avoid things according to our pleasure and preferences.

Communication is the way in to transfer the information From one person to another person. It is very important for an individual to have communication skills because it helps us in our overall development. Surprisingly, minimal focus is placed to this aspect of the development. When it comes to Social situations, anxiety issues, low self esteem, interpersonalrelationships and professional relationships as well, our emphasise is more on the verbal skills and personality types. Very less attention is paid to the non verbal skills.

Either its your personal or your professional life, Communication is vital. When it comes to Professional life situations are worst. Researches and studies have shown that 70,000 graduates are unemployed due to the fact that they lack communication skills (SinarHarian 9 may 2012). The report also stated that more than 50% of the fresh graduates are facing this problem. Even they are dependent on others for help. Another important area is Student life. Study conducted by Paschal in 1978 claims that Self esteem and grades what students get in thier schools are positively related to each other. Also, that even if students have queries and Doubts about the lesson taught in the class they don't ask them directly to the Teacher.

In the above studies and situation Your gestures, Facial expressions, body language, proxemics and paralinguistic are the non verbal skills they were lacking which eventually lead them to the low self esteem. Your gestures, your facial expressions, Your body language, Your eye gaze etc. All of them can place a high impact on a Succeeded or Failed communication.

Organisations, Schools and even Parents nowadays are more concerned about the communication skills of thier employees, students and children. The educational authorities such as schools academies and institutions all of them should teach and make their children learn all the non verbal and verbal skills of communication.

"Introverts are dependent on their own inside noise, extroverts are dependent of outside noise. The outputs are dependent on the quality of those noises." – Amit K. Ghosh
The trait of extraversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories. The term Introversion refers to the tendency to prefer and gain energy from more internal pursuits, while the term Extraversion describes those who feel energised from interacting with other people and the environment around them.

In recent years, the concept of Introversion vs. Extraversion has gained increasing popularity in modern media.

The terms introversion and extroversion were popularized by Carl Jung, who hypothesized that people are either introverts or extroverts, comparing them to Greek mythological figures. Extraversion and introversion are typically viewed as a single cintinuum. The terms became much more widespread once they were identified as a primary category in the Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory(MBTI) , a psychological assessment that measures personality types. The Myers-Briggs Foundation website distinguishes the two types by identifying Extraversion (E) as gaining energy from active involvement, socializing, and action, and Introversion (I) as acquiring energy from handling complex ideas and abstract values either alone or in small groups.

Neuroscience research supports the idea that there is a distinct difference between these two separate categories. Introverts tend to have a thicker prefrontal cortex, the area of the brain primarily responsible for forethought and planning, which may contribute to the introvert's propensity for deeper thought. On the contrary, extroverts tend to respond more strongly to rewards as the reward system part of the brain is much more active.

INTROVERSION The whole concept of introversion can also be reflected by the word - Intrsopection.
Introversion is the state of being predominantly interested in one's own mental self.Individuals who fall into this category are very attuned to their internal experience. They spend a significant amount of time pursuing more intellectual or internal interests, such as reading or examining their own reactions to the environment around them. This is not to say that introverts are not attentive to their external environment but rather, they are more focused on their response to the external environment.

Introverts often take pleasure in solitary activities such as reading, writing, using computers, hiking, or fishing. An introvert is likely to enjoy time spent alone and find less reward in time spent with large groups of people, though they may enjoy interactions with close friends. Trust is usually an issue of significance.

Mistaking introversion for shyness is a common error. Introversion is a preference, while shyness stems from distress. Introverts prefer solitary to social activities, but do not necessarily fear social encounters like shy people do.
1. Increased knowledge of self and superior self-awareness
2. Depth and deep connection in relationship.
3. Typically high IQ (due to time spent examining academic pursuits and more efficient study habits)
4. High potential for success (due to tendency to carefully deliberate options and develop thorough plans for achieving goals).

1. Higher susceptibility to psychological distress (due to deeper thought)
2. Unique thoughts may make introverts more susceptible to rejection
3.Cynicism tends to run high with introvert populations

According to the Big Five Personality Assessment, the six key mannerisms associated with introversion include:
A) Interpersonal Distance
B) Reservation in Social Settings
C) Shyness
D) Passivity
E) Self-Control

Extroversion (also spelled as extraversion) is the state of primarily obtaining gratification from outside oneself. Extraverts tend to enjoy human interactions and to be enthusiastic, talkative, assertive, and gregarious. Extraverts are energized and thrive off being around other people. They take pleasure in activities that involve large social gatherings, such as parties, community activities, public demonstrations, and business or political groups. They also tend to work well in groups. An extraverted person is likely to enjoy time spent with people and find less reward in time spent alone. They tend to be energized when around other people, and they are more prone to boredom when they are by themselves.
1. Higher chances of obtaining a leadership position (due to strong assertiveness and team orientation)
2. Ease of establishing friendships
3. High success rates due to propensity for a fast-paced lifestyle
4. Strong leaning towards optimism

1.Very high risk of frequent boredom
2.Increased effort to attain an efficient amount of stimulation
3.Lack of depth in interpersonal relationships

The Big Five Personality Assesment cites six key characteristics that, taken together, capture the broad trait of extraversion.
A) Warmth
B) Gregariousness
c) Assertiveness
D) Activity
E) Excitement-Seeking
F) Positive Emotions.

While it was rare for someone to score 100% within either direction on the spectrum, it soon became clear that a third category needed to be added in order to represent people who fall exactly in the middle.
Ambiversion is falling more or less directly in the middle.
An ambivert is moderately comfortable with groups and social interaction, but also relishes time alone, away from a crowd. In simpler words, an ambivert is a person whose behaviour changes according to the situation he/she is in. In face of authority or in presence of strangers, the person may be introverted, however in the presence of family or close friends, the person may be highly energetic or extroverted.

Acknowledging that introversion and extraversion are normal variants of behavior can help in self-acceptance and understanding of others. For example, an extravert can accept their introverted partner's need for space, while an introvert can acknowledge their extraverted partner's need for social interaction.
Researchers have found a correlation between extraversion and self-reported happiness. That is, more extraverted people tend to report higher levels of happiness than introverts. Other research has shown that being instructed to act in an extraverted manner leads to increase in positive affect, even for people who are trait-level introverts.
This does not mean that introverts are unhappy. Extraverts simply report experiencing more positive emotions, whereas introverts tend to be closer to neutral. This may be because extraversion is socially preferable in contemporary Western culture and thus introverts feel less desirable. In addition to the research on happiness, other studies have found that extraverts tend to report higher levels of self-esteem than introverts. Others suggest that such results reflect socio-cultural bias in the survey itself. Dr. David Meyers has claimed that happiness is a matter of possessing three traits: self-esteem, optimism, and extraversion.
Although extraversion is perceived as socially desirable in Western culture, it is not always an advantage. For example, extraverted youths are more likely to engage in antisocial or delinquent behavior.In line with this, emerging evidence suggest that the trait of extraversion may also be related to that of psychopathy. Conversely, while introversion is perceived as less socially desirable, it is strongly associated with positive traits such as intelligenceand "giftedness." For many years, researchers have found that introverts tend to be more successful in academic environments, which extraverts may find boring.

As earlier stated, extraverts are often found to have higher levels of positive affect than introverts.However, this relationship has only been found between extraversion and activated forms of positive affect.There is no relationship between extraversion and deactivated (calm) forms of positive affect such as contentment or serenity, although one study found a negative relationship between extraversion and deactivated positive affect (i.e. a positive relationship between introversion and calm positive affect). Moreover, the relationship between extraversion and activated positive affect is only significant for agentic extraversion, i.e. there is no significant relationship between affiliative extraversion and activated positive affect, especially when controlling for neuroticism. An influential review article concluded that personality, specifically extraversion and emotional stability, was the best predictor of subjective well-being.

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"Dr Barmi has spearheaded a plethora of projects in corporates and schools with her profound philosophy of "reach, care and assist".

Dr Barmi has worked with over 1 lakh clients over past 25 years and has spearheaded a plethora of projects in corporates and schools with her profound philosophy of "reach, care and assist".